Historically, the general condition of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the city is no different from that of other parts of the state. The population of the city including newly added areas is 744983. Out of this there are 68293 Scheduled Castes and 722 Scheduled Tribes. In order to assess the general condition of the Scheduled Castes, they can be divided into four areas as follows.
1. Habitat systems and colonies
3. General condition
4. Social situation
1. Settlement systems and colonies
75-80 percent of the population are colony dwellers. It is estimated that there are 78 colonies within the city limits of Thiruvananthapuram. A large majority of the Scheduled Castes living outside the recognized colonies are found in clustered habitats. They were subjected to untouchability and constant persecution in the past and naturally came to live in groups in series. And the traditional customs among them also motivated them to live in groups.
As far as Thiruvananthapuram Municipal Corporation is concerned, there are a large number of Scheduled Castes who do not get possession of the land they live in. But this type of situation is less in the newly added areas of the municipality. However, there are many families in the city of Thiruvananthapuram who are not able to own a house or get the benefit of being included in the complete housing scheme from the government because they do not get property ownership rights. Therefore, the housing problem, which is one of the basic needs of this group, remains unsolved. Due to this they are also denied basic facilities like electricity, clean water etc.
The city of Thiruvananthapuram, which came under the control of the City Improvement Committee in 1894, became a municipality from 1920 and a corporation from 1940. When it was incorporated in 1940, the area of Thiruvananthapuram city was only 12 square miles. Population target is one and a half lakh. At that time there was only 10 miles of road under the control of the municipality. Although Thiruvananthapuram is not an industrial city or an agricultural city, as it is the capital of the state of Kerala, twice as many people as the city’s population come and go daily in the fields of education, treatment, employment, research and entertainment. Thiruvananthapuram is one of the rare cities that can manage all modes of transport equally, but it is doubtful whether they are being utilized properly. Like all other cities, Thiruvananthapuram city is mainly dependent on road for transportation. Clean, tidy and hygienic roads are an integral part of urban development. As part of the ninth five-year plan, when the public planning project was started in 1997, 798 km of roads were under the control of the municipality. This included 435 km tar road, 75 km metal road, 235 km concrete road and 53 km other roads. During this period the urban population was about five million. The development sector in 1997-2002 included the transport sector with an emphasis on the development of municipally owned roads and the construction of new roads. As mentioned in the development sector, the transport sector has not achieved full success, but a large part has been completed.
In 1997-98, when the public planning project was started, Thiruvananthapuram Municipal Corporation undertook 30 repair works in the transport sector. Apart from 17 completed projects, 13 projects had to be partially or completely abandoned. It is believed that many projects had to be abandoned due to lack of time to complete the projects.
41 new projects were intended to be implemented in the Thiruvananthapuram Municipal Council in 1998-99, the second year of the Public Planning Project. Only 22 projects could be completed. As in the previous year, this year too the projects were undertaken by the people’s committees. However, 19 projects had to be completely or partially abandoned due to the lack of experience of the committees that undertook the projects, disputes in many project areas, failure to complete long-term projects on time, and lack of time to complete the projects. In 1999-2000, 161 projects were undertaken in the transport sector. Out of these 161 projects, 108 projects have been completed.
In the 4th year of the 9th Plan, the panchayats of Attipra, Kadakampally, Ullur, Thiruvallam and Nemam, which are adjacent to Thiruvananthapuram city, were added to this municipality. Accordingly, the number of municipal wards changed from 50 to 81 and the area of the municipality increased. The 4th year of Janakiya Sutra had 317 projects including public works works in the newly annexed areas. Only 170 projects were completed that year. This year, apart from the committees, contractors were appointed to undertake and implement the projects.
In the year 2001-02, 631 projects including spill over projects were included in the transport sector. Of these, 394 have been completed. In the years 1997-98, 1998-99 and 1999-2000, each panchayat was devising and implementing projects separately. The project focused on the construction of school buildings, improvement of other physical facilities, rehabilitation of roads and construction of new roads. Thiruvallam Gram Panchayat completed 30 renovation works from 2000-97. Nemam Grama Panchayat completed 65 renovation works from 1997-2000.
According to the public planning project of the Thiruvananthapuram Municipal Corporation, during the 9th plan period from 97-98 to 2001, a project called Jalasechanam tulkalam was also carried out in the Public Works Department. During this period there were no specific projects for flood irrigation. From 2001-2002 there were 24 projects in Irrigation – Flood Control.
75% of Scheduled Castes residing in Thiruvananthapuram Municipality are wage labourers. Only 8% of these are government employees. Agriculture is the backbone of our economy. Scheduled castes are mostly engaged in agriculture. The occupations of Scheduled Castes in Thiruvananthapuram city are hard and dangerous jobs like agriculture, coconut plantation, cloth weaving, rattan weaving, stone work, house construction work, mason work etc. Most of them work in agriculture. Due to the decrease in the amount of agricultural land, their employment is also decreasing.
4. Social situation
It can be seen that the Scheduled Castes have been left behind in the financial sector, both with investment and non-investment, which can generate significant income and assets. For example, those who own more than 25 cents of land, owners of wholesale retail establishments, medium private hospitals, medical stores, lab owners, owners of publishing houses and printing houses, contractors, leading garment traders, industrialists, leading gold jewelery traders, studio owners, wedding hall owners, etc. Seen unattainable.
The situation is no different in the fields of education and culture. Few get admission in fee-paying nursery schools. In every school, every year and every year, the children who fail in Maths, Science and English, who are expelled from unaided schools for low marks, belong to this category.
57% of LP category students studying in city limits study in government schools and 21% children study in aided areas. Only 22% study in unaided sector. In the upper primary sector, 57% rely on government schools. 29% are in aided sector. Only 14% study in unaided sector. In the high school sector, only 34% study in government sector, 40% in aided sector and 26% in unaided sector.
Majority of the students and parents of Thiruvananthapuram city depend on the universal and free education system run by the government sector.
The city of Thiruvananthapuram as the capital city is historically and culturally connected with the history of Kerala. Marthandavarma, the Maharaja of Travancore, made Thiruvananthapuram the capital of Travancore and in a natural evolution, Thiruvananthapuram became the cultural capital. During the time of Marthandavarma, the chief among the cultural leaders who resided in Thiruvananthapuram were Kunjan Nambiar, Unnai Warrier and Ramapurat Warrier. As the capital city, Thiruvananthapuram became musically important, but it was during the era of Swathi Thirunal that Thiruvananthapuram became an important center of Carnatic music. Born in Thiruvananthapuram in 1782, Ravivarman Thambi, who later became famous, was Iraimman Thambi. He lived during the time of Swathi Thirunal. Apart from him, Vadivelu and his brothers, Kannayya Bhagavathar, Parameswarabhagavathar, Govindamarar, Vidwan Rajarajavarma Koithampuran, Maliekal Krishnamarar and many other singers and lyricists were present in Thiruvananthapuram. Swathi Thirunal Music Academy (1939) is a college established in Thiruvananthapuram in the name of Swathi Thirunal during the reign of Chithira Thirunal Maharaja. India’s first Legislative Council (1888) came into existence during the reign of Shri Moolam Thirunal, who was crowned in 1885. The Legislative Council, which was originally 8 members, became a much larger People’s Representative House in 1904 under the name Sri Moolam Assembly.
The festival is important to the cultural atmosphere of the city. The main festivals of the city are Padmanabhakshetra Aarat, Atukal Pongala, Conchiravila Pongala, Bhimapalli Urus and Vettukad Perunnal. In connection with Onam, the state government also regularly organizes tourism week celebrations in Thiruvananthapuram. Many small and big art and cultural organizations are working in the city. Thiruvananthapuram Observatory was established in 1837 during Swathi Thirunal. Thiruvananthapuram Museum started functioning in 1855. The museum was opened to the public in September 1857. The Napier Museum, a magnificent building in the museum grounds, was completed around 1880. Thiruvananthapuram Public Library was established in 1829 by British Resident Colonel Edward Cadogan. The state government institutes such as Bhasha Institute (1968), Department of Cultural Publications (1983), State Children’s Literature Institute (1981), State Sarva Vignanakosam Institute (1976), S. M. S. M. The institute is located in the city. Narayana Guru, Chattambi Swamikal and Ayyankali who have contributed immensely to the cultural growth of Kerala and not India itself have had a remarkable impact on the social life of this region. On November 12, 1936, the King of Travancore, Chithira Thirunal, opened the temples of Travancore to all castes through his famous temple entry proclamation, which is regarded as a revolutionary step in the field of Ayutthaya.
Thiruvananthapuram Municipality has an area of 141.74 square kilometers including 5 Panchayats attached to Thiruvananthapuram Municipality. The first two year plan of the merged panchayats has been prepared separately. In 1998-99 for the old 50 wards of the Thiruvananthapuram Municipal Corporation, Rs. 56.73 crore was spent out of the Rs. In 1999-2000, a project allocation of Rs.41.13 lakh was sanctioned in 6 projects and expenditure was Rs.61.52 lakh. In 2000-01, Rs.13.35 lakh was allocated as project allocation and Rs.15.5 lakh was spent. In 2001-02, out of Rs 49 lakh allocated as scheme allocation, Rs 40 lakh has been spent. 2,09,77,000 has been spent in total. Out of this, the project allocation is Rs.1,71,42,000. At important roads and junctions in the city, S.V. KSE is working to install the lamps. The work of extending the line and installing lights is done by the board by depositing the entire amount of the estimate of the KSE board by depositing the labor charge in the board. The free electricity connection project has been implemented by authorized wire-men and the project to install solar water heaters in hospitals has been implemented by Anert’s authorized agency with the help of Anert.
During 2000-01 and 2001-02, the free electrification scheme for the weaker sections could not be implemented due to non-receipt of beneficiary lists from the wards on time. gone. And one of the criteria included in the free electrification scheme from 1997 to 1999 was T. C. A large number of beneficiaries have missed out on the benefit of the free electrification scheme for the sole reason that the number is mandatory. KSE There has been a delay in the implementation of projects deposited with the board. The delay is due to checks not being cleared from the treasury on time. Also the delay has arisen due to KSEB not being able to make the materials available on time. The work of replacing bulbs with CF lamps has been partially completed. Projects in power sector are mostly done by KSE board. Even if the checks are issued by the municipality respectively, the KSE board starts the process of implementing the projects after receiving the check from the treasury. Due to this reason there is a lot of delay in the implementation of projects. As the estimates are revised and given, the amount will have to be paid again. There must be a permanent solution to this. The implementation of the project has also been delayed due to lack of sufficient staff in this sector.
There are still unlit roads and alleys in the panchayat areas that have been added to the urban areas. The aim was to provide light to all areas of the city in such a way that the customer does not feel any difficulty. The line was extended to a length of 135 km. 2,200 tube lights, 2,050 SV lamps and 4000 CF lamps were installed during the project period. Emphasis can be placed on installing street lights on the main streets of Thiruvananthapuram city with the participation of various agencies and installing high masters at major junctions to make the city attractive. A scheme can be devised to replace the existing bulbs in the annexed panchayats with sodium vapor lamps, to install 70 volt sodium lamps at the intersections of minor roads in the city, and to provide electricity directly to the municipality within the municipality.
In the first two years 1997-98 and 1998-99, in the panchayats of Ullur, Atipra, Thiruvallam, Kadakampally and Nemam, emphasis has been laid on non-conventional energy distribution and energy conservation, laying of power lines and installation of street lights. In all the panchayats, the schemes have been implemented as intended and within the budget. For energy conservation and energy distribution, benefit sharing and subsidy of Anert have helped in the implementation of the project.
Thiruvananthapuram Municipal Corporation undertook and implemented a total of 27 projects in the drinking water sector under the Public Planning Scheme during the 9th Five Year Plan. The main focus has been on replacing the existing small diameter pipelines with new ones and extending the distribution network to more places. In order to solve the lack of adequate distribution network to distribute the excess water obtained for daily use through the newly commissioned clean water development project in the city, the project of increasing and extending the diameter of the pipeline has been taken up and implemented in the ninth plan.
As it is difficult to supply water from the existing reservoirs of Thiruvananthapuram Water Authority in the eastern areas of the city such as Thrikannapuram, Mudavanmughal wards and some parts of Tirumala, Poojapura and Pangod wards, the necessity of implementing a new water supply scheme for those areas was realized in parallel and the need to collect water readily available at Karamanayar and distribute it to the 25000 people of the said area Trikannapuram – Mujadavanmughal It was started under the control of Kerala Water Authority under the name of Distribution Project. A contribution of Rs.3 Crore 90 Lakhs has been prepared for the said project. The activities of land acquisition, construction of intake well, pump house, treatment, plant installation and reservoir distribution network were targeted to be completed during the Ninth Plan. But land acquisition work, construction of intake well, pump house etc. have been completed. A total of Rs 2 crore 20 lakhs has been deposited with the Kerala Water Authority for other works, but the Kerala Water Authority has only been able to complete works worth Rs 34.75 lakhs. The remaining Rs 182.25 lakh is held by the Kerala Water Authority. The process of inviting tenders for completing the remaining works has been completed and the project can be completed within the 10th Five Year Plan itself.
The 9th Five Year Plan aimed to conserve all water sources (wells and ponds) in the city. The amount was earmarked in 1997-98 and 1998-99 for renovating wells, constructing new wells and providing financial assistance to individuals. Implementation of these projects has helped to alleviate the drinking water shortage in the city to a small extent. But the plan to protect the ponds could not be sufficiently successful. In addition, a project to provide potable water by constructing borewells was also implemented. A scheme was also implemented to provide financial assistance to economically backward people to get their own pipe connection. It is also encouraged to buy efficient front load washing machines to save water.
Trikannapuram Water Supply Project – Agency Kerala Water Authority.
The year the project was taken up was 1997-98. Project Cost – Rs 390 Lakhs Total Cost – Rs 245 Lakhs The T project has been prepared for providing water supply to Trikannapuram, Mudavanmughal wards and Tirumala, Pangod and Pujapura wards partially. Land acquisition work and construction work of intake well cum pump house required for implementation of the project have been completed. The construction of the treatment plant to be set up at Paramala in Thrikannapuram ward, the construction of the service reservoir, the construction of the reservoir to be set up at Mudavanmugal Kunbungalow and the construction of the transmission line are yet to be completed. A total of Rs 245 lakh has been spent in the 9th Five Year Plan for the implementation of the project. Of the 220 lakh rupees invested in the water authority, 34.75 lakh rupees have been utilized for construction work. 185.25 lakhs and the balance is deposited with the Water Authority. The process of inviting tenders for completion of the remaining construction works has been completed.
Scheme for installation of public taps
Taken up during the project year 1997-98. A project prepared to install public taps in 58 colony areas populated by low-income people in the city was completed in the year 1997-98 and the implementing agency of the project is the Kerala Water Authority, which spent a total of Rs.10 lakhs.
Scheme for installation of large diameter pipes
Taken up during the project year 1997-98. The project aimed to strengthen the distribution network by replacing the smaller diameter pipeline with a larger diameter pipeline. Kerala Water Authority is the executing agency of the project and Rs.30 lakhs have been deposited with the Kerala Water Authority in the year 1997-98 for the implementation of the project. The project has not yet been completed.
Construction of bore wells – Water supply
Taken up during the project year 1997 – 98. 1,74,30,000/- for the project Rs. The executing agency of the project – Kerala Ground Water Department has constructed borewells at 64 places in the city and provided potable water. Construction of overhead tank and work of laying water supply pipelines was omitted.
Rehabilitation of wells
Taken up during the project year 1997 – 98. The scheme aimed to provide individual financial assistance to upgrade 500 wells as part of protecting the city’s water resources. The project continued to be a spill over project during the project year 1998-99 with a contribution of Rs.35 lakhs. Implementation of the project was completed during the 1998-99 project year. A total of 528 wells have been upgraded. The total cost is Rs 11.69 lakh.
Construction of wells
The scheme envisages to finance (provide) Rs 7,500/- to Scheduled Caste families and Rs 5000/- to others for construction of 200 new wells in the city. A total of 143 wells were spent on construction of Rs.8.15 lakhs.
The project was designed to create a model for harvesting rainwater and using it for washing vehicles and similar purposes. It was completed in the year 1998-99. A total of Rs.1,30,000/- was spent. On the model of this very useful project, the scheme of harvesting rain water in private garages of the city government needs allocation in the 10th Five Year Plan as well.
Coastal fresh water supply
In 1998-99, a scheme was developed from the Thiruvananthapuram Water Authority with the financial assistance of the Fisheries Department of the Government to extend the fresh water supply network in 6 coastal wards namely Poonthura, Bimapalli, Valiyathura, Vallakadav, Shankhumukham and Vettukad. The total project cost is Rs 52 lakhs. 13850 meters long pipeline with 410 mm diameter was laid. 94 public taps have been installed. Kerala Water Authority has been entrusted with the project implementation. A total of Rs 40 lakhs was deposited with the Kerala Water Authority. Total cost Rs.36,10,024/-. 3,89,976/- has been set aside as deposit in the Water Authority.
Pipe line extension
1998 – 99 is a project to replace obsolete, small diameter pipelines in the city and lay new larger diameter pipelines. This project started in the year 1998-99 and continues as a spillover. The total cost of the project is Rs.96.64 lakhs. 55.75 lakhs has been spent so far. As part of expanding the water supply network in 44 wards of the city, the work of laying 3,000 meters of pipeline has been completed.
This project has been of great benefit in addressing the weakness of the existing distribution network to supply excess water which is the objective of the recently commissioned Interim Water Supply Expansion Project in the city. In the 10th Five Year Plan as well, the formulation and implementation of this type of scheme can be prioritized.
Free Pipe Connection to Weaker Sections:- In 98-99, the scheme was intended to provide financial assistance of Rs.2000/- each to the weaker sections for taking their own pipe connection but the scheme was included as a spill over in 2000-2001 but no financial assistance was given to any one. In the 2001-2002 Annual Plan, steps were taken to provide financial assistance to a total of 300 persons.