Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Development
Out of the 67 Scheduled Tribes of Kerala, the Pulayars, Paroyars, Thandars, Mannan (Wannan), Sambavan, Kurkan and Parayan communities reside within the city limits. Most of them are Pulaya community members. They used to work day and night in the fields and fields of Janmi and upper castes in the society. In the early days, only porridge to satisfy hunger was received as wages. In later times men were given half a pound of paddy (4 Nazhi) and women 3 Nazhi of paddy.But with the introduction of Chakra (coin) men were given 2 Chakra daily and women 1 Chakra daily. After that it was changed to 3 Chakra for men and 2 Chakra for women.
Ayyankali was a social reformer who emerged from the Dalit community while the above communal system existed. He was born on 28th August 1863 at Venganur in Kottukal village of Neyyattinkara taluk. His primary goal was to get freedom of movement for Dalits. For this purpose, he organized the Dalits and convinced the Dalits that they have the freedom to travel along the path that they have paved. In 1903, he led the Great Bow Cart Strike and in 1904, in Venganur, he set up a kutipallikudam for the Dalit community in violation of Manusmriti’s law. In 1905, the Sadhujana Pariwalana Sangam was formed. In 1907, he formed the farmers’ union with the aim of job stability, fair wages and punctuality in work.
In 1907, the struggle that led to school admission for children belonging to the Dalit community is well known. Under his leadership, a Pulayakutty was taken to the Uruttambalam Government School for admission, and despite the order of the Director of Public Education, the natives organized opposition. The natives attacked the Pulayas who resisted. The riot unleashed by the natives for the interest of the natives is known as Pulayalahala in later times. In 1915, he successfully organized the Kallumala Boycott Movement against the ruling of the upper castes that Dalit women had to wear Kallumala. From 1912 he was a member of Srimoolam Prajasabha for 28 consecutive years.
As the freedom struggle got stronger, so did the opposition of upper classes. Starting with the Netumangadu riots in 1912, the riots that took place in the areas of Balaramapuram, Kavalam, Venganur, Kaniyapuram and Kazhakootam Chennithala are also famous. The Pullat riot, which was held against drunken upper castes attacking Scheduled Castes, and the Perinad riot, which was held in protest against the attempt to kill Gopaladas, an upper caste who worked with Iyenkali for the upliftment of Dalits by organizing the lower castes, are also important in the struggle traditions. Ayyankali reached the Putharikandam Maidani to see the Maharaja of Travancore, and when he came to know that he had seen the Maharaja, the Savarnas attacked him. The Manakattu riot was a protest against this.
In the early days, the area called Varghummudu, adjacent to Akkoolam Kayal in Ullur region, was known as the place where the kings impaled their people.
As a result of the work of social reformers Aiyankali and Narayana Guru, as per Mahatma Gandhi’s wish, Avarnas were able to enter the temples with the Temple Entry Proclamation held on 12th November 1936.